There is currently NO CURE for Neuromyelitis Optica. However, medications can be used to manage relapses, prevent relapses, and manage symptoms of the disease.
In order to stop a current attack your physician might give you a corticosteroid medication (methylprednisone or Solumedrol). If steroids do not stop your disease activity your physician may opt for plasmapheresis or IVIG therapy.
Plasma exchange is frequently recommended as the first or second treatment, usually in addition to steroid therapy. In this procedure, some blood is removed from your body, and blood cells are mechanically separated from fluid (plasma). Doctors mix your blood cells with a replacement solution and return the blood to your body.
Doctors can also help manage other possible symptoms, such as pain or muscle problems.
Preventing future attacks. Doctors might recommend that you take a lower dose of corticosteroids over time to prevent future NMO attacks and relapses.
Your doctor might also recommend taking a medication that suppresses your immune system. Immunosuppressive medications that may be prescribed include azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan), mycophenolate (Cellcept) or rituximab (Rituxan).
We are quite lucky now that we have more than one FDA approved treatment for NMO.
Please remember, these drugs are preventatives and can therefore not manage symptoms of past flares. These treatments are meant to help prevent attacks in the future!